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The Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) was the last imperial ruled in China.

It was founded by the non-Chinese Manchu people Aisin Gioro family who originally lived in the northeast Aisa. 

The early and high Qing emperors Kangxi (1662-1722), Yongzheng (1723-1735) and Qianlong (1736-1795) were patrons of the arts and literature. They also substantially expanded the territory of China by defeating the Oirats or Dzungars (Western Mongols) that had tried to establish an independent khanate in Central Asia, and by conquering the Uyghur states (modern Xinjiang), Tibet and the island of Taiwan. 

While the early rulers maintained Manchu culture, they governed using Han Confucian styles and institutions of bureaucratic government. They retained the imperial examinations to recruit Hans to work in parallel with Manchus. They also adopted the ideals of the tributary system in international relations.  This blending of Machu and Han culture would become a feature of their success. Qing became the most powerful country in the 17th century.  

The reign of the Qianlong Emperor (1735–1796) saw the apogee and initial decline of prosperity and imperial control. The population rose to some 400 million, but taxes and government revenues were fixed at a low rate, virtually guaranteeing an eventual fiscal crisis. Corruption set in, rebels tested government legitimacy, and ruling elites did not change their mindsets in the face of changes in the world system. 

At the end of the eighteenth century increasing problems began to haunt Qing China. Monetary inflation and rampant corruption among the officialdom led to numerous Han peasant rebellions. The long period of peace had contributed to a sharp increase in population growth, and the Hans were now 77.8%, Manchus only 2.9% ,while all others were 19.3%. This population distribution meant that there were many Han people not able to nourish themselves.  The big problem exploded in the large Hans purpose: "Overturn Manchu Qing to Recover Hans Ming" and the Taiping rebellion nearly brought the Qing dynasty to an end. 

Qing China also was caught in the so-called "high equilibrium trap" (Mark Elvin) with the combination of a relatively high agricultural productivity but without technical progress. Very cautious towards the sea and its dangers, the Qing - like their predecessors, the Ming Dynasty - were hesitant in the question of promoting international trade. The government only allowed foreigners to purchase tea, silk and chinaware in one single port, Canton Guangzhou. ( Guanzhou city Guangdong province), but refused to open more ports to British and other overseas merchants. The question of opium smuggling was the spark that ignited the first of a series of wars in which Western powers "opened" China for trade and missionaries.  

Peaceful times also led in to friction in the Aisin Gioro families.  Those that had been tightly knit families now fought with one another. Assimilation of Han culture weakened the Manchus military culture and the moral resolve of the Aisin Gioro 's Manchu society became increasingly focused on individual self-interest.

An ambitious Hundred Days' Reform of 1898 was turned back by Empress Dowager Cixi. Cixi's non - sense passing of her throne to a toddler forced the latter Qing dynasty to depend totally on Han chancellors led by Shikai Yuan. 

The 1911 Revolution "get rid of the Tartars (Manchus) and restore Han China" initiated the disintegration of the empire and the founding of a Republic (1912-1949) without any clear political leader but Sun Yat-sen. 

The last emperor abdicated on February 12, 1912.  Shiksa Yuan was the President of the Republic of China succeeding Sun Yat - sen. (1912-1916) and the last Emperor of the Empire of China 1916.



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